"The polarisation of current opinion on Celticity is exemplfied by the views of John Collis and Simon James on the one hand who vigourously challenge the validity of the term "Celtic" as a means of labelling the later pre historic European past and of Vincent and Ruth Megaw and Barry Cunliffe on the other hand who argue in favour of "Celts" and "Celtic" as useful descriptors of a loosely knit but in some ways coherent group of ancient communities."
Celtic Wales by Miranda Aldhouse Green and Ray Howell
Our Yr Aflonyddwch Mawr reading of the current position is that that there is an emphasis on the particularities and a very critical view on the universals of Celtic culture and social structure.
Yr Aflonyddwch Mawr does not see the particularities invalidating the universals of a Celtic Culture just adding to its richness.
Social Classes of the Celts
The Celts were well defined when it came to the set up of society. Tribal structure was the most important. There were distinct social classes in the divisions of the tribes. And tribal law was set up for the common good of all.
All tribal land was owned by the tribe in general. Any land in the territory occupied by the tribe was to be divided for the use of the tribe, and could not be owned by individuals. Natural boundaries set up borders for the land division.
In fact, the word tribe came from an old Celtic word meaning boundary or trench.
Sections of the land were appropriated by the ruler and his civil service group for the work that they performed for the general group. There were large sections of land that were set aside for the public good, and was used by the entire tribe. Usually these were pastoral or grazing areas, and very fertile growing sections. Other sections were set aside for the elderly, disabled, and the poor of the tribe.
Land held by individuals was subjected to taxes to help support the less able members of the tribe. However, if a man died, and had outstanding taxes, surviving relatives didn't have to assume his debts. Celtic laws stated that "every dead man kills his own liabilities."
This was also partly the Celtic view of the afterlife: when a person died, he or she would proceed in the next life as they did in this. Many times debts were not paid, with the expectation that they would be collected on the other side.
Since the tribe held title to the land, and it could not be sold, there was no absolute ownership of land in Celtic society. The land held by the chieftains and the nobles was still to be held in the public good.
Every tribesman was able to keep and work his land, but could not sell it, conceal it, or use it to pay for any crime or debt. Livestock was also included in the issue. Any disposition of cattle held by one person had to be approved by the tribe, so as not to harm the collective welfare of the tribe.
The overtly communistic nature of the Celtic society also played into the way the tribe worked the land. Plowing was done on a communal basis. The Celtic plow was one of the great developments of the Bronze Age. It allowed the farmers to work the land deeper and more thoroughly than contemporary devices. Since cattle were often held in common fields, the manure that was left was used by the tribe on a common basis as fertilizer. The Celts also harvested together.
One of the devices that they used was a harvesting machine. The Roman, Pliny the Elder, commented on this, and how it made life easier. He said, "A big box, the edges armed with teeth, and supported on two wheels, moved through the cornfield pushed by an ox; the ears of corn were uprooted by the teeth and fell into the box."The actuality of the Celtic land practices would last even longer. Until the middle of the 19th century, Scottish farmers on the Hebrides still farmed and harvested in the old fashion. In some ways, the cotters and spalpins of the west of Ireland still practiced a version of the Celtic land use, when the tenant farms were subdivided to postage sized plots. The Famine helped to eradicate its use.
The principles of common ownership of Celtic lands lasted a long time. The last practiced use was to occur until the Highland clan chiefs were to be appointed nobles in the united Scotland and England. Until then, the lands were held in common trust, and no chieftain would ever consider that clan's land his own property.
The lowest class was what was called the ""non-freemen." These were lawbreakers, and as such lost their civil rights, tribal distributions, and were prohibited from working in the various professions. Since the Celts held that lawbreakers should be made to repay their debt to society, or debts in general, physical determent was not considered an option.
Social Set Up in Celtic Society
Celtic society was set up with six basic classes. However, a person could rise from the lowest class to the largest class, or move in the other direction. The good that was done in service to the entire tribe was the basis for the advancement in Celtic society. Since everyone was expected to serve in the military, there was not a lot of status advancement in serving bravely.
Rather, the non-freemen were expected to work off their debt, and make contributions to the welfare of the entire tribe. Non-freemen also consisted of deserters from battle, hostages, and prisoners of war. Contrary to Roman custom,
The second grade of Celtic society was the itinerant tribesman. These people hired themselves out as herders, or field workers. They also filled the rosters of the military. However, since they didn't work their own land, they had little political influence.
The next part was the tribesman that worked his own land. These were the basis of the Celtic tribe. This subsection of Celtic society was the group that paid the taxes, elected officials to their assemblies, and provided the largest part of the military when needed. The craftsmen, the people that tanned leather, made swords, gold and silver smithed, as well as the blacksmiths, were also a part of this section.
The group above the tribesmen was that of the elected officials . These were the group that carried out the administrative duties of the tribes. They maintained the social fabric of the tribe. This group collected taxes, maintained roads and bridges, the public mills and fishing equipment; the tribal hospital, orphanage, and other aspects of the public good; to organize the army, and keep it supplied.
They also made certain that the farmers were well supplied. Keeping with the communal setting, if one farmer had a surplus, he could cover for another that had a shortage. For this, the elected officials were provided land during their lifetime or service time as payment. Roman writers mistook this elected class for nobility.
The professional classes were the next stratum of the society. This included the druids, the bards, and the lawyers and doctors. The druids were trained in druidic colleges, with the training often lasting for as long as twenty years. Anyone from any section of Celtic society was eligible to enter the priesthood.
The druids not only functioned as the religious of the Celtic society, they also were the philosophers, doctors, magistrates, and judges of the group. The druidic class was also experts on the rights of inter-tribal and international law. They could stop inter-tribal warfare, because their authority was greater than the chieftains.
Equal to the druids in status were the bards. The bards were the minstrels, storytellers, and oral tradition teachers of the Celts. Their training was almost as extensive and long as the druids.
This was mostly because Celtic traditions were oral, and required the learning of the many tales and stories. They had to be word perfect, meaning they couldn't leave out words or phrases, because the group would let them know immediately. The bards were given a high status in Celtic life even through to the time of Christianity. The ransom price for a bard was almost equal to that of a chieftain.
The last layer of Celtic society were the Chieftains. The chiefs were elected by the tribe in general. There was no such concept as that of primogeniture, the rights of the first born, to maintain the hereditary title of the position. There were families that had a number of members elected to such office, by they still had to be elected. The Celtic chiefs were not lawmakers, as much as administrators, having to answer to the will of the people. Chiefs could be male or female, although the election of a woman as chieftain was rare.
Druidism beliefs and practices
Beliefs and practices of the ancient Celts are being pieced together by modern Druids. Because so much information has been lost, this is not an easy task. Some findings are:
Specialties: Within ancient Druidism, there were three specialties.
"A general categorisation of the three different grades accords the arts to the bards, the skills of prophecy and divination to the Ovates and philosophical, teaching, counseling and judicial tasks to the Druid."
The Bards were "the keepers of tradition, of the memory of the tribe - they were the custodians of the sacredness of the Word."
In Ireland, they trained for 12 years learning grammar, hundreds of stories, poems, philosophy, etc.
The Ovates worked with the processes of death and regeneration. They were the native healers of the Celts. They specialized in divination, conversing with the ancestors, and prophesizing the future.
The Druids and Druidesses formed the professional class in Celtic society. They performed the functions of modern day priests, teachers, ambassadors, astronomers, genealogists, philosophers, musicians, theologians, scientists, poets and judges.
They underwent lengthy training: some sources say 20 years. Druids led all public rituals, which were normally held within fenced groves of sacred trees.
In their role as priests, "they acted not as mediators between God and man, but as directors of ritual, as shamans guiding and containing the rites." Most leaders mentioned in the surviving records were male.
It is not known whether female Druids were considered equal to their male counterparts, or whether they were restricted to special responsibilities.
References to women exercising religious power might have been deleted from the record by Christian monks during the Celtic Christian era.
Goddesses and Gods: The Celts did not form a single religious or political unity. They were organized into tribes spread across what is now several countries.
As a result, of the 374 Celtic deities which have been found, over 300 occur only once in the archaeological record; they are believed to be local deities.
There is some evidence that their main pantheon of Gods and Goddesses might have totaled about 3 dozen - perhaps precisely 33 (a frequently occurring magical number in Celtic literature).
Some of the more famous are: Arawn, Brigid, Cernunnos, Cerridwen, Danu, Herne, Lugh, Morgan, Rhiannon and Taranis.
Many Celtic deities were worshipped in triune (triple aspect) form. Triple Goddesses were often sisters.
Afterlife: They believed that the dead were transported to the Otherworld by the God Bile (AKA Bel, Belenus). Life continued in this location much as it had before death. The ancient Druids believed that the soul was immortal.
After the person died in the Otherworld, their soul reincarnates and lives again in another living entity -- either in a plant or the body of a human or other animal.
After a person has learned enough at this level, they move on after death to a higher realm, which has its own Otherworld.
This continues until the individual reaches the highest realm, the "Source."
"All things are created from the Source, including the Gods. We are just sparks from its flame." At every birth, the Celts mourned the death of a person in the Otherworld which made the new birth possible.
Creation Myth: No Druidic creation story appears to have survived, although there are numerous accounts of the supernatural creation of islands, mountains, etc.
Baptism: There is some evidence that the Celts had a baptism initiation ceremony similar to those found in Buddhist, Christian, Essene, Hindu, Islamic, and Jainist sacred texts.
Other researchers dismiss baptism as a forgery by Christian scribes as they transferred Celtic material to written form.
Moral code: Druids do not follow the Wiccan Rede which states (in modern English) one is free to do anything, as long as it harms nobody.
The closest analogy are the Celtic Virtues of honor, loyalty, hospitality, honesty, justice and courage. "Daven" briefly describes the Virtues as follows:
"Briefly stated the virtue of Honor requires one to adhere to their oaths and do the right thing, even if it will ultimately hurt others or oneself in the process.
A Druid is obligated to remain true to friends, family and leaders thus exhibiting the virtue of Loyalty.
Hospitality demands that a Druid be a good host when guests are under one's roof. Honesty insists that one tell the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth to yourself, your gods and your people.
Justice desires the Druid understands everyone has an inherent worth and that an assault to that worth demands recompense in one form or another.
Courage for the Druid does not always wear a public face; it is standing-strong-in-the-face-of-adversity, alone or with companions.
Sometimes Courage is getting up and going about a daily routine when pain has worn one down without complaint or demur."
Divination: Druids used many techniques to foretell the future: meditation, study of the flight of birds, interpreting dreams, and interpreting the pattern of sticks thrown to the ground.
Seasonal Days of Celebration:
Druids, past and present, celebrate a series of fire-festivals, on the first of each of four months. Each would start at sunset and last for three days. Great bonfires would be built on the hilltops.
Cattle would be driven between two bonfires to assure their fertility; couples would jump over a bonfire or run between two bonfires as well. The festivals are:
Samhain (or Samhuinn) Literally the "end of warm season". November 1 marked the combined Feast of the Dead and New Year's Day for the Celtic calendar. It is a time when the veil between our reality and that of the Otherworld is most easily penetrated. This fire festival was later adopted by the Christians as All Soul's Eve, and later became the secular holiday Halloween.
Imbolc (or Brighid) Literally "in the belly". February 1 marked The Return of Light. This is the date when the first stirrings of life were noticeable and when the land might first be plowable. This has been secularized as Groundhog Day.
Beltaine (or Bealteinne). May 1 was the celebration of The Fires of Bel. This was the peak of blossom season, when domesticated animals bear their young. This is still celebrated today as May Day. Youths dance around the May pole in what is obviously a reconstruction of an earlier fertility ritual.
Lughnasad (or Lughnasadh, Lammas). August 1 was The Feast of Lugh, named after the God of Light. A time for celebration and the harvest.
There were occasional references in ancient literature to:
the winter solstice, typically December 21, when the nighttime is longest
the summer solstice, typically June 21, when the nighttime is shortest
SEE ALSO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63Grz46cOeg